Philosophy 1860a

There is no real syllabus at this point, just a list of things we are going to be reading, or probably will be reading, and even that is not set in stone. It is simply too hard to know, in advance, at what pace we will be able to work through the various topics we shall be covering. So think of what follows as a rough guide that will settle into place as we proceed. As we go, I will enter approximate dates for the various readings.

Most of the readings are available in two forms: (i) a DjVu file and (ii) a PDF file. They are intended for different uses.

There is another advantage to DjVu. Because DjVu is a file format specifically designed for scanned text, the DjVu encoder produces files that are typically much smaller than the corresponding PDFs, sometimes as much as 95% smaller.

To view the PDFs, you will of course need a PDF reader. For the DjVu files, you will need a DjVu reader. Free browser plugins for Windows and Mac OSX are available from Caminova; Linux users can likely just install the djviewlibre package using their distro's package management system. Another option is Okular, which was originally written for Linux's KDE Desktop Environment but which can now be run, experimentally, on Windows and OSX, as well. A list of other DjVu resources is maintained at

The program I have used to convert PDFs to DjVu is a simple Bash script I wrote myself, pdf2djvu. It relies upon other programs to do the real work and should run on OSX as well as on Linux.

Richard Heck Department of Philosophy Brown University